Study on “Development of a Template for Dispute Settlement Mechanism between Member States”

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Framework Agreement for Energy Cooperation (Electricity) provides an important step towards energy security in the South Asian region. It is an ambitious project, but it is nonetheless important for the future and development of the region. A factor of particular importance in the Framework Agreement is the necessity for there to be an effective and viable dispute settlement mechanism for potential disputes arising out of the interpretation and implementation of the agreement. This would allow disputes arising across the various aspects of cross-border electricity trade to be resolved quickly and expediently, in a manner that is neutral and fair, and in a way that minimizes any disruption caused to cross-border electricity trade and cooperation in the region.

Studying and reviewing the Framework Agreement alongside international best practices drawn from other inter-State dispute mechanisms allows for a dispute settlement mechanism to be created that is unique to the SAARC Framework Agreement and to SAARC Member States. In this way, SAARC Member States will be able to benefit from the utilisation of an inter-State dispute settlement regime that is tailored to their specific needs, and to their regional preferences. Such a template for the settlement of disputes between SAARC Member States while having in mind the specific context of the SAARC Framework Agreement, may also be adapted more generally for other subject matters and international obligations relating to the region.

This dispute settlement mechanism provides yet another important building block in materialising the vision of the SAARC Member States for the creation of the SAARC Energy Ring and for its operational efficiency. I commend the efforts and initiative of the SAARC Energy Centre and SAARC Arbitration Council in commissioning this important Study, and wish them the very best in their mission to mitigate energy disputes within the region through the implementation of an inter-State dispute settlement mechanism for SAARC Member States.

Download Full Report Now

Study on "Action Paper on Assessing the Gaps in Laws and Regulations Regarding Trade & Exchange of Electricity"

The SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Member States, comprising Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka signed the SAARC Framework Agreement on Energy Cooperation (Electricity) on the Twenty Seventh Day of November, 2014, in Kathmandu, Nepal. The objective is to enable Cross-Border Trade of Electricity on voluntary basis and subject to laws, rules, regulations and agreements of the respective Member States and based on bilateral/trilateral/mutual agreements between the concerned states. The SAARC Energy Centre now aims at implementing the SAARC Framework Agreement. An enabling environment is required for smooth implementation of the Framework Agreement. Consequently, prevailing laws and regulations of the member states are required to be assessed and aligned with respect to Cross-Border Electricity Trade.

Assess the relevant laws and regulations of each of the Member States to
▪ Propose exemptions from duties and taxes on Cross-Border trade and exchange of electricity
▪ Facilitate buying (such as distribution companies) and selling entities (such as generation companies).
▪ Gaps identified, if any, would be required to be tackled through appropriate amendments as recommended in the Action Paper at the end of this report

Download Full Report Now

Study for the Deployment of Electric Road Transportation in South Asia

All SAARC Member States have continuously growing transportation sector to support their increasing population, rising urbanization and developing economies. This has translated into constant pressure on their dependence on oil imports as well as resulted in environmental externalities including climate change implications and local air pollution. Further, with SAARC Member States setting challenging targets to reduce their respective greenhouse gas emissions over the upcoming y ears under the Paris Agreement held on December 2015 at the 21 st session of the Conference of the Parties6, it has now become imperative to assess the current mass transit systems and move towards designing of policies for providing efficient, affordable, accessible and clean mass transportation services to the citizens.

Download Full Report Now

Study to "Investigate the Difficulties for Household Solar Systems in SAARC Region"

Solar energy is a promising solution to meet the demand for electricity services of rural households in remote locations across the developing countries. The SAARC region witnesses a large amount of solar radiation and hence many areas within this region have apt conditions to utilize the available solar energy through Off-grid solar PV systems. Hence various programmes of household Solar Home Systems (SHSs) had been launched by the SAARC Member States. However, after some early success, several doubts have arisen about the effectiveness and suitability of small PV systems for rural development. There have been many organizational, financial and technical problems that hindered progress of various programmes. SAARC Energy Centre (SEC), has proposed this study on Solar Home System under “Study to Investigate the Difficulties for Household Solar Systems in SAARC Region” with the following objectives:
▪ Review the already completed household Solar Home System programmes and Projects implemented by the Member States including the degree of satisfaction experienced by the users of SHSs.
▪ Identify and investigate barriers and constraints in SHS implementation and suggest measures for the promotion and development of Solar Home Systems in the SAARC Region.

Download Full Report Now

Study to Review of Existing Feasibility Study of Karnali Chissapani Hydro Power Project (10,800 MW) for Defining the Way Forward to Materialize its Development as a Regional Hydro Power Project.

The general objective of this study is to review the Feasibility Study Report of Karnali (Chisapani) Multipurpose Project (1989) so as to see if there is an opportunity to develop this project for the regional markets and create an opportunity for cooperation for trade in the energy sector and eventually leading to creation of an integrated electricity market in South Asia. The key objective are: (i) review of the existing feasibility studies of Karnali (Chisapani) Hydropower Project (1989). (ii) Appropriately point out the requirements of upgrade/improvement in the data/information contained in the existing studies, where required. (iii) Point out the need to incorporate necessary information which is missing in the existing studies, where required, especially from the point of view that the project is to be undertaken as regional hydro power project. (iv) make available detailed ToR for updating the 1989 Feasibility Study, (v) sensitize the decision makers, professionals, investors and developers of a great opportunity to consider the construction of a regional hydropower project and considerably offsetting the electricity demand and supply gap. And (vi) take another step for advocacy towards promoting regional energy cooperation for materializing the SAARC Energy Ring envisioned by the SAARC leaders.

Download Full Report Now

Study on “Defining Minimum Set of Standardized Technical Data Required for Regional Power Interconnections and Regional Power Trading”

Major objective of this in-house study is to define a set of minimum/vital/standard data and information for and establishment of SAARC Regional Power Interconnections and Power Trading via facilitation and implementation of the SAARC Framework Agreement on Energy Cooperation (Electricity).

The study report may cover, but not limited to, regional as well as international data pertaining to cross border electricity trade to be shared among the power exporting and importing Member States including existing generation facilities, transmission network, generation additions and retirements, transmission developments/augmentations

Download Full Report Now

Study on “Clean Coal Technologies for Power Sector and Their Scope in SAARC Region”

Coal contributes 39.3 % in global electricity generation and will continue to play a major role in delivering secure energy within in coming decades. Although, the share of coal in the energy mix is declining in developed countries like USA, China and UK, SAARC member states are planning to enhance the coal based power generation as the region has abundant coal resources. Particularly, the expansion of coal fired power generation in India and Pakistan will account for the major increase in coal utilization in the region. Governments of Bangladesh and Afghanistan have also planned to expand coal based power generation in near future. The region is all set for sustained coal utilization in decades to come and coal is going to play an important role in poverty elevation in the region. However, upcoming coal fired power plants in Pakistan, Bangladesh and India will only accounts for ~10% of India’s coal utilization.

The role of clean coal technologies is significant in SAARC region as compared to other parts of the world. This report provides an overview of existing clean coal technologies, their application and potential in SAARC region.

!Download Full Report Now

Study to “i) Assess the Power Planning Criteria of SAARC Member States in the Perspective of International Practices and Upcoming Regional Power Interconnections and ii) Recommend Changes / Enhancements”.

The purpose of transmission system planning is to develop a reliable and efficient transmission system for transferring power from areas of generation to areas of demand (load) under varying system conditions, while operating equipment within accepted ratings. The system conditions include - changing demand patterns, generation changes and equipment outages (planned or unplanned)

Download Full Report Now

Study to “Assess the Resource Potential and Planning for a Demonstration Project Using Run of River Submersible Water Turbine”

In this in-house study, proposed under SEC thematic area of Programme to Successfully Implement Technology Transfer (POSIT), the resource potential of a nearby canal named Upper Jhelum Canal, originating from Mangla Dam has been assessed and deployment of a submersible Hydel Turbine at Jaggu water level crossing (RD 123050) near Village Jaggu, Tehsil Kharian District Gujarat has been planned. SEC

Following are the objectives of the study:
• Exploration of the potential sites by measuring its resource potential.
• Identification of suitable sites on the selected canal.
• Detailed planning for the installation of the turbine on selected site.

Download Full Report Now

Study to "Compare the Prevailing Policy Measures, Technical Standards and Techniques Including Labeling Schemes for Energy Efficiency Energy Conservation"

The objective of the study is to highlight and compare available Energy Efficiency policies and standards adopted by the SAARC Member States with the developed world and suggest appropriate measures for the effective uplift their policies being successfully adopted by advanced countries.

Present study is an in-house initiative with major focus on Energy Conservation policies and techniques with in SAARC Member States with respect to domestic sector only. Technical standards are also limited to appliances standardization and labeling schemes for domestic appliances. It will cover existing and prospective issues & barriers that SAARC Member States may face in its way to energy efficiency. And to overcome these issues & barriers, solutions are proposed, for end user, producers, regulators and policy makers.

Download Full Report Now